I would divide the book into two types of chapters, those that build on existing skills an intermediate to advanced user would have, and those that teach techniques that an advanced user would want to know. All of these chapters and some of the others expect that the reader has existing knowledge of Photoshop, 3ds Max, and Mental Ray to achieve the end result.
The second type of chapter is more about using techniques and applications that an intermediate user might not normally use, and treats the chapter is an introduction to those techniques and applications. These chapters include the chapters on reactor, particle systems, camera matching, green screening, as well as many others. For me personally, I found the second type of chapter the most enjoyable to read, only because it introduces techniques and methodologies that I have always wanted to use but may not have had the time to figure out how to do on my own.
With these chapters, the technique is broken down into step by step methods that are easily followed and easily understood. This does not discount the validity of the other chapters in any way. All in all, this is a very well put together book. The organization of the book makes it easy to find specific topics that you may be interested in as a reader, and every chapter is very well written with clear, concise instructions and explanations.
I really only have one complaint with the entire book, and that is that all of the material and lighting chapters deal specifically with Mental Ray which ships with 3ds max , so I can understand its inclusion. It would have been nice to include a chapter or two on V-ray, as there are a lot of max users out there who use V-Ray as their render engine. Again, that is a minor critique of an otherwise great book. I would highly recommend this book as well as the other two to anyone involved with the architectural visualization industry, not just those that use 3ds Max. If you move your cursor.
This lets you move in a single plane. Creating a Rock and a Tree In this lesson, you'll create two primitive objects, then modify their parameters so they take on the appearance of a rock and a tree. The button highlights to show that it is active and ready to use. As long as you hold the mouse button down, you can adjust the size of the sphere. When you release the mouse button, the sphere is complete. The sphere changes size in the viewport. AEC Extended objects are pre-built geometry, including railings, fences, and plants.
They are a fast way to add realistic details to a scene. Each time you click this button, the Seed value is changed, causing the tree to undergo a random reconfiguration. Adding Materials to Objects In the Scene You add realism to scene objects by adding materials to their surfaces. Material texture can include information from bitmap images, as well as bump maps for a 3D effect. In this tutorial the battlefield terrain, as well as the tree, rock, cannon, and windmill, all get their appearance from bitmap texture mapping.
The Material Editor opens as a floating window. The Compact Material Editor is usually more convenient when you want simply to assign materials that have already been designed. The Slate Material Editor, which takes up more screen space, is more convenient and versatile for designing materials. Typically, you would have multiple materials to choose from, so you might prefer to expand the number of sample slots selectable from the editor.
A white outline shows the slot is active. Right-click and from the list, choose 5 x 3 Sample Windows. You now have 15 sample slots for future use. This material has already been constructed for you. It uses a bitmap as a texture and includes a bump map. The viewport now displays a landscape covered by grass and dirt. The stone surface updates to a realistic texture. Next, you will apply a material to the cannon. All parts of the cannon were previously grouped together into a single entity, called a selection set. This way, when you choose a material, it is applied to all components in the selection set in a single action.
This method is another way to apply materials to selected objects. You'll do this with keyframe animation. The Auto Key tool in 3ds Max lets you record the physical characteristics of an object at any given point in time. This state in time is called a keyframe. The following procedure consists of two animations.
Between frames 0 to , you will advance the cannon to its firing position, next to the rock. Between frames and frame , you will raise the cannon barrel in preparation for the first shot. One is to turn on the Auto Key button, move to any point in time, and transform move, rotate, or scale the object. A second method is to right-click the time slider and then set keys using the Create Key dialog. There is also a Set Key animation mode, designed for professional character animators. After a moment, a tooltip appears that says frame. The tooltip indicates your selection tool is hovering over the frame object.
In this scene, frame is the parent object of the cannon, meaning that if it moves, the rest of the cannon assembly moves with it. Drag the time slider to frame to create a 4-second animation when played back at 30 frames a second. TIP The time slider bar also turns red, and the active viewport is outlined in red to remind you that you are in Auto Key mode.
Autokey interpolates, or averages out, the cannon position at each frame from its start position at frame 0 to its final resting place at frame TIP To avoid accidentally creating unwanted animation, develop the habit of turning Auto Key off after animating each movement. Notice how animation has already been applied to the windmill in the background. Play Animation. Watch the animated cannon prepare its deadly attack on the windmill. Realistic materials, shadow casting, and other factors can slow the process as well. If you run into this problem, click the Browse button on the Missing External Files dialog.
This opens the Configure External File Paths dialog. Click the Add button. Click OK, and then click Continue. Render your animation: To complete this tutorial, render the animation you made earlier. The rendering time is probably under 15 minutes, depending on the speed of your machine. If you left the setting at Single, just the currently displayed frame would render.
This smaller size has only one-quarter the area of the default, making it much faster to render. You might have to scroll down in order to see this control. If you don't tell the program what type of animation format to save in, the rendering won't work. There are many different codecs to choose from. Cinepak generally gives satisfactory results and is commonly installed on Windows machines, meaning your compressed AVI file can be read by wide audience.
Watch a few frames to make sure that the rendering gets off to a good start. The Time Remaining estimate gives you an idea of how long the rendering will take. Summary You have learned how to find your way around the 3ds Max user interface while creating an animated scene. You now know how to navigate the viewports, create simple objects using primitives, and assign materials to them. You've also learned how to move objects as well as animate and render your animation. Many different techniques can be used to create the objects in your scene.
3ds Max 2010 Architectural Visualization Advanced to Expert Book by 3DATS Reviewed
The techniques you learn in these tutorials can be adapted to any style of modeling you need to perform. For instance, if you're building models that will be incorporated into a game, you'll be most interested in low polygon modeling techniques. The same techniques will be equally beneficial when building highly detailed models for architectural presentations or motion pictures. In this tutorial, you will learn how to:. Using Basic Polygon Editing to Create a Helmet When you model rounded objects, such as the helmet in this tutorial, we recommend that you avoid using a sphere as a starting point.
The next illustration shows the polygons that make up a sphere. The top of the sphere is composed of triangular polygons whose vertices tend to pinch together at the pole. This can lead to problems later on. It is therefore best to model a rounded object, other than an actual sphere, using rectangular polygons only. You will use this technique in this lesson. By default, a minimized version of the Graphite Modeling Tools ribbon displays directly below the main toolbar. This tutorial assumes you are using the default configuration. The tools in the Polygon Modeling tab are inactive, since no polygon model exists in the scene.
You need to set this point to the center of the box so you can manipulate the object more easily.
The object is deformed into a spherical shape, but retains its geometric composition of easily editable quadrilateral polygons. You only need a hemisphere to create the helmet, so next you will delete the lower half of the box and deform the remaining polygons into a conical shape. Region-select all the vertices in the lower half of the object but not the equator , then press Delete.
Next, you will give the object a slightly conical shape. Notice that only the polygons that share the vertex are deformed. You need to use Soft Selection to involve the adjacent vertices and polygons as well. Next, you will use the MeshSmooth tools to smooth out the helmet surface. This way, any changes you make will be perfectly mirrored for the other half.
The polygon selection is inverted. The new selection contains the polygons we want to remove. You will now add a Symmetry modifier to these polygons so that their geometry can be mirrored. With the helmet. This properly orients the mirrored half of the helmet. Notice how the ribbon displays a limited set of modeling tools. This is because the Symmetry modifier is active. Now the Editable Poly object is active again, and the ribbon displays an expanded set of tools for polygon editing. The mirrored half of the helmet is hidden in the viewport because with the polygon editing controls displayed, you are editing the source polygons only.
This smooths out the object by adding more polygons to the geometry. It is best to specify an Iterations value of no more than 3, because each time you increase iterations by one, the number of vertices and polygon faces can increase by a factor of four. This can result in a lengthy calculation time. Next, you will add two extrusions that will form the rim of the helmet and its vertical ridge.
The Ring tool automatically selects all the vertical edges. Once again, 3ds Max displays the caddy controls for the Connect tool. The Symmetry modifier is removed and all the mirrored polygons are integrated into the model. In the next procedure, you will add more edges to create a less rounded extrusion to the rim and ridge. If the viewport is shaded, press F3 to turn off shading and see the helmet in Wireframe view.
Notice the slight wave to the extruded rim of the helmet. Now the edges of the extruded ridge are also straight. A green virtual loop appears as you drag the mouse. It lets you visualize where to place the loop. Like the loop you placed on the opposite side, it should be close to the base of the extruded ridge. It uses extrusions and transforms; it also demonstrates spline extrusion as a simple alternative to multiple extrusions. Once again, apply a Symmetry modifier to mirror the edits you make to one half of the helmet.
Select the polygons on the left half of the helmet from your point of view , and then press Delete. On the Modify panel, you can toggle Show End Result to make sure the helmet is mirrored correctly. This ensures that the transform of any vertex will slide along the edges of the polygon to which it belongs. If you need to, click Zoom Extents to get a good view of the helmet. Also move the vertices above and below the central vertex. The goal is to create a symmetrical shape that is roughly circular. Because of this, it is a good idea to deactivate a constraint as soon as you have finished using it.
Also, the buttons in this set behave like radio buttons. This automatically selects all the polygons that share the vertex. Click once to end the operation. Click to end the extrude operation. At this point, you could continue to create the horn by using the Move, Rotate, and Scale tools, coupled with the Extrude, Bevel, and Inset polygon tools. Instead, you will guide the extrusion by means of a path.
Click, drag, and click again, until you have created a line of four or five vertices. Right-click to end Line creation. Move it along the X axis too, if you need to. After you click the spline, 3ds Max grows horns, but these have no taper, yet. This might or might not be a good effect, depending on the spline you drew.
This is easier to see in other viewports, but you can also navigate the Perspective view, as shown in this illustration. Click OK to finalize these changes and finish creating the horns. NURMS smoothing needs to be off before you transform the helmet into an Editable Poly: Otherwise, you wind up with a model that has far too many faces. You will use this tool to remove the edge loop in the middle of the helmet ridge. Notice that while the loop edges have been deleted, their vertices remain.
You want to remove the vertices as well. Stop when you have connected edges on the rear side of the helmet as well as along the front. NOTE If you start extruding the polygon while looking at the model head on, the extrusion will take on a 2D appearance. Summary Throughout this tutorial, you used a number of modeling tools on the Graphite Modeling Tools ribbon to create a Viking helmet. While these tools are also available from the Command panel, the ribbon gives you faster access, in context, as you need them. For a full description of the ribbon tools, consult the 3ds Max help.
This tutorial shows you how to do so. In this tutorial, you will model two house fronts, based on photos of buildings in the plaza of Monpazier, a 13th-century bastide fortified town in Dordogne. The illlustration shows these houses, along with two others in the actual plaza, the houses occupy different positions. TIP If you are not familiar with using the Material Editor and texture-mapping modifiers, you might want to go through the Materials And Mapping tutorials on page first, then return to this tutorial.
In this tutorial, we create irregular meshes that include multisided polygons. A deformable mesh, by contrast, should contain only square or triangular polygons of fairly uniform size if you plan to turn the mesh into a subdivision surface by using the HSDS modifier, then it should contain only square polygons before you apply HSDS. See Modeling an Airplane on page for an example of mesh modeling with more-or-less regular polygons.
You might want to read it if you plan to take your own photos or scans to use in a similar way. Or you might want to skip this section, do the tutorial itself, and then read this material later. In a photograph, as in the human eye, parallel lines appear to converge. So you will almost always need to use a graphic editing program, such as Photoshop, to adjust the photo before you use it as a texture.
But such a lens is a specialized, expensive piece of equipment. A view camera, which uses a bellows for the body, can be set to accomplish perspective correction, too. But view cameras are not in widespread use, these days. In this example, we wanted to remove the little girl standing in the archway:. Begin Building the Model The house begins as a simple plane. The scene contains a plane to model the pavement, a Daylight system with a sky dome, and a few cameras that are hidden. If there is one, turn it on. If there are two, turn on both of them. Restart 3ds Max before you continue with this tutorial.
Bitmap configuration changes do not take effect immediately: You always have to restart 3ds Max. If you did not have to change the Match Bitmap Size setting, you can continue without restarting 3ds Max. In the lower-left corner of the View File dialog, a status line shows the dimensions of the image, which are x pixels. These dimensions roughly correspond to the aspect ratio of the photo: pixels, or 0. After you convert the plane to an Editable Poly surface, you will subdivide it by using the polygon tools.
On the Adjust Pivot rollout, turn on. Affect Pivot Only, then move the pivot vertically so it is at the base of the Facade1 plane. With Select And Move still active, on the status bar, right-click the X, Y, and Z spinner arrows so the pivot of the plane is now located at the origin 0,0,0.
Setting the Z axis to 0. Setting X and Y to 0. When Sequence is on, 3ds Max attempts to create an IFL animation, and we want to open only the single image. A wire appears in the View. The goal of the steps in this section is to be able to edit the Facade1 poly surface without distorting the texture projected onto it. The stack setup used in this section is an alternative method that works for surfaces other than Editable Poly. Turning on Show End Result for all three levels of the stack causes the viewports to always display the full bitmap in its final placement, even while you edit the underlying geometry.
For the edits you are doing in this tutorial, it is safe to click Yes and proceed with your work. You also have the choice of turning on Do Not Show This Message Again before you click Yes: That disables display of this warning, but it does so not only for this tutorial, but for all future 3ds Max sessions. Stack setup for editing a poly surface with a bitmap. One further adjustment corrects for the situation that highlighted polys are hard to see with the default color scheme.
In the modifier stack, click to activate the Editable Poly level. If you need to,. See Modeling a Helmet Using the Ribbon on page 64 for further uses of the ribbon. NOTE The lintel beam is not perfectly rectangular. You will adjust its outline in a later procedure. The other vertical door edges match edges you already created for the windows. These move to the geometry level as well as to modifiers. Detailing the Doorways Modeling the lintel is a bit more complicated than modeling the windows. On the other hand, the doorways themselves are a simple extrusion as the windows are. As you can see in the bitmap, the lintel has an irregular outline.
You will edit the faces so they correspond to the outline of the wooden beam. Free-standing vertices are never a good idea. Include the portion with stone to the left of each door. The left-hand doorway has an extra sliver of face that the right-hand doorway does not have.
This is a problem that you will fix in a later lesson. Reminder: Holding down Shift while you move, clones the edges to create new edges. TIP At the extreme left and right of the roof, you might also want to move the front roofline vertices slightly downward. After moving all existing vertices, you can see there are two areas on either side of the peak, where the sagging of the medieval roof still shows some sky. Each loop should be near the middle of the sky area, on either side of the peak of the roof.
The next lesson shows how to correct the texture in these portions of the model. Correcting the Texture To correct the texture on selected faces, you add additional mapping information for those faces. Adding texture detail is a matter of how much time you want to spend, and how you plan to use the model. If the model will appear only in a long shot, you might be able to dispense with texture correction. If the model will appear in a medium shot or a close-up, you might have to go through these steps. For the purposes of this lesson, we use the final rendering as a guide:. Facade1, on the left, is in shadow: But at another time of day, you would be able to see the right sides of the doorways.
So we will show how to correct the sides of the doorway, and the doorstep. The windows are too far away to see detail; the roof is seen only from below; and the sides of the house are obscured by other houses. In the modifier stack, click the UVW Mapping entry to make this modifier active. NOTE You can adjust some settings for both doorjambs at once, because they are parallel to each other. Now the geometry shown in the Edit UVWs dialog the red mesh represents only the left-hand doorjamb face. The face mesh now shows handles at its edges and corners.
With Freeform Mode, you can scale the face by dragging a corner handle, rotate the face by dragging a side handle, and move the face by dragging from the interior of the face. That way, you can see your texture-mapping changes interactively, as you make changes in the dialog. In the viewport, you can see how the correction looks. Once again, you can see the correction in the viewport. To compensate, we use the lintel texture: Although the lintel is wood, when scaled up in size it can pass for stone. A close-up rendering of the doorways shows your texture corrections better than the viewport can.
But if you want to try using Unwrap UVW to do so, or if you are simply curious how it was done for the completed model, here are the mappings used. NOTE The completed model has some additional mapping corrections not shown here: the bottom of the lintel and the bottom of the eaves. Modeling the Second House The second house front has a peaked roofline and an arched entry.
We will concentrate on modeling these, as you already know how to model windows. Change the Length height value to NOTE The aspect ratio of the new house is , which equals 0. Most of the houses in Monpazier are 6. Affect Pivot Only, then move the pivot vertically so it is at the base of the Facade4 plane. Click the Editable Poly entry again, then add a Poly Select modifier. Move the upper-left and upper-right vertices down to match the roofline. To get true horizontal edges, you need to use a different tool at first.
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Add Detail to the Arch The arch is the distinctive feature of Facade4. Make them a little closer together at the top, and more widely spaced toward the bottom. The cuts should always join edges or vertices. Add Detail to the Cornice The cornice, with its peak, is slightly different from the roof for Facade1. But that work has been done for you in the sample file for the next lesson. This completes the modeling work on Facade4.
What remains is to correct the texture mapping with Unwrap UVW. Because the arch is curved, you will use a new method to map its inner faces. Because of the arrangement of these faces, you use different Unwrap UVW techniques. In the modifier stack, make sure UVW Mapping is the active level. TIP You can press F2 to toggle the shading of selected faces. Turning on face shading makes it easier to see your selection.
The cylinder gizmo has one height segment displayed in green. This indicates where the seam of the cylindrical mapping will be. At present, the green segment is near the right side of the arch. After you have set up the Sketch Tool to use Free Form drawing, you work in a two-step manner: First, drag to select the vertices you want to reposition; Second, draw a freehand stroke to show Edit UVWs where to place the selected vertices.
Avoid lighter areas of the bitmap except the reflected lights, which will look OK ; and of course, avoid the bicyclist.
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If you want to try modeling them, you should now know the tools you can use to do so. The overall steps are as follows:. Modeling an Airplane In this tutorial, you explore Editable Poly surfaces further by building a model of a fighter airplane. Although the airplane is not meant to be deformed, this is the kind of mesh you should create when you model a deformable character.
Typically these images are plans that show the side, front, and top of the object to model. You might find such plans on the Web, you might scan them from a book or the instructions for a scale model, or you might draw them yourself. Here are some pointers for how to set them up so you can use them in 3ds Max:. Many image-processing programs have guidelines or rulers that can help you align the images to a common center, and make sure their dimensions match. Square images are easier to align when you apply them to 3ds Max geometry. In 3ds Max itself, you can set up three planes in the virtual studio arrangement.
For this tutorial, we used Generic units 1 generic unit equals 1 inch , and set the reference planes to the pixel dimensions of the blueprint images: x Map the images to the planes, using these guidelines:. If your scene uses lights, the blueprint images will always be visible. On the Object Properties dialog, turn on Backface Cull. Freezing the planes lets you work on the model without worrying about selecting the planes by accident. By default, frozen objects are gray: Turning off this option lets you freeze the planes and still see their blueprint images.
Creating the Fuselage The fuselage begins as a geometric primitive. You modify the shape of the primitive, and then convert it to an Editable Poly object. For most of this section, and the remainder of the tutorial, you will use Edit Poly tools to shape the airplane.
The airplane will consist of just two objects: The fuselage with its wings and other details, and the canopy that goes over the cockpit. Give it a height of about 60 the exact value is not important. Set Height Segments to 1, Sides to 10, and turn off Smooth. In the Left viewport, move the cylinder so it is well centered on the image of the airplane.
In the Top viewport, move it forward so its rear edge coincides with the rear edge of the engine cowl. In general, we mention view changes when they are particularly important or useful, but you might want to change the view more often than we indicate. This is quite all right. Use your eye and your judgement.
Click Control Points to highlight that sub-object level. In the next procedure, you refine its shape along the length of the airplane. You will use this additional free-form deformation modifier to give some taper to the nose of the airplane. Do the same for the lower trailing edge of the cowl. By converting the cylinder to an Editable Poly object, you lose the specific Cylinder and FFD modifier controls, but you gain access to the rich set of Editable Poly sub-object controls. The Bevel tool does two things: It extrudes a selection, and then lets you scale the size of the extrusion. Release the mouse, then drag downward to scale the polygon so it tapers as the blueprint image shows.
Complete the Air Intake At the front of the cowl, the cover of the air intake is recessed, and has a rounded shape. In the Perspective viewport, drag downward to reduce the size of the front polygon, and add polygons around it. In the Perspective viewport, drag downward to recess the central polygon. This change is easier to see in the Left viewport. Click away from the geometry to deselect the front face. Even with X-Ray display, it is a little hard to see details of the blueprint image.
As the blueprint image shows, there is a circular area within the recess: This is the intake for air to help cool the engine.
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Click to select the center edge at the bottom of the recess. But because of the way 3ds Max constructed the cylinder that was the origin of this model, the intake face is a sided polygon. As we mentioned earlier, it is best if the mesh consists of consistently quadrangular polygons: These work much better with smoothing and if you are creating a character with skin deformation.
So to complete the air intake, you divide the large sided polygon into smaller quadrangular polygons. Zoom in a bit so the geometry is easier to see. It is hard to see the connecting edge until you click elsewhere in the viewport to deselect the initial vertices. Shape the rear of the cowl: The engine cowl fits over the front of the main fuselage, a bit like a bottle cap on top of a glass bottle.
So the rear of the cowl also has a recessed area, though not as pronounced as the air intake. In the Perspective viewport, drag the mouse down to inset the rear of the cowl. In the Perspective viewport, drag downward to create a shallow recess at the rear of the cowl. The Ring tool selects a ring of comparable edges, about the circumference of the cowl. These let you adjust the edge connection interactively.
Now the P engine cowl is essentially complete, as far as polygon shapes go. You will add some detail later, to improve the way 3ds Max smooths this part of the model. In the Perspective viewport, drag downward to create an inset with very narrow border polygons. In the Perspective viewport, drag upward this time to extrude the polygon toward the rear of the airplane. Watch the Front viewport while youre doing so, and extrude the polygon just beyond the area of the cowl. Release the mouse, then drag upward again to scale the bevel so it is almost the same diameter as the cowl itself.
Again, watch the Front viewport while you work. This looks good, but if you look at the Top viewport, you can see that the new bevel is a bit too wide. Along the way, you will use Scale and vertex adjustments to refine its shape. In the Perspective view, extrude the fuselage up to the leading edge of the cockpit.
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As usual, watch the Front viewport while you work. Then move these vertices downward along the Y axis to match the lower contour of the airplane. Working in the Perspective viewport, but watching the Front viewport, extrude the fuselage as far as the seam at the rear of the cockpit. If this happens, extrude as far as you can, then move the polygon horizontally to the desired location. Also, the polygons along the length of the fuselage are too long: In later procedures, you will add edge segments to refine the mesh, and move vertices to improve the contour of the fuselage.
At this point, you might also want to go to the Vertex sub-object. Remember to use region selection so you select the vertices on both sides of the fuselage. Then extrude the fuselage as far as the leading edge of the tail. Complete the Lower Part of the Tail The lower part of the tail extends the fuseelage, but it becomes much more narrow. NOTE The axis in which you need to align faces depends on how you created your geometry.
In this case, the fuselage began as a cylinder built in the Left viewport, so aligning to the Y axis makes the faces horizontal. In a different model, you might have to experiment to find the axis that works. The two faces on top of the tail should become the active selection again. As you did for the bottom portion of the tail, you will move vertices to round the outline of the top of the tail.
But to get enough vertices to model the curvature well, first you add another set of edges,. At this stage, you might also want to move the vertex pairs in the middle of the tail, to improve their alignment. Refine the Fuselage In this lesson, you add more edges to improve the regularity of the fuselage and refine its profile. For the third setting, Slide, right-click the spinner arrows to reset the value to 0. Then change. Setting the Slide value to zero guarantees that the new edge loops are evenly spaced. Use the Connect tool caddy to reduce the number. Completing the Tail To complete the tail, you add horizontal stabilizers on either side of the vertical stabilizer.
Begin Adding the Horizontal Stabilizers The horizontal stabilizers are shaped like small wings, and you use similar methods to model both these airplane parts. Still they all teach us something new, mostly with a help of very practical exercises. It's not just about the new version of 3ds Max - as the matter in fact its new features are only mentioned in a text. There are no complex explanations of every new tool and option. The guide describes the main aspects of 3D graphic to owners of any version of 3ds Max. I found it to be a perfect solution as it makes the book versatile and let it be used even by fans of other 3D applications.
Beautifuly edited, about one thousand page book is definitely worth its prize. Close this window. Create new account. Wrong login or password. Two previous guides that led us from beginner to advanced level, were positively reviewed and raised my expectations greatly before another lecture. UVLayout's user interface. Three steps of generating seamless texture in Photoshop. The result of a simple rigid body simulation exercise.
A basic foreground over background composite using an alpha matte. RizomUV released. Rizom-Lab released its first major update of the year for this standalone UV mapper. Epic Games: main partner of Academy Days Chiaroscuro with V-Ray. Lighting techniques, Materials and exercises to get Photorealistic Rendering. Wrong F-in Question - CG podcast.
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