They are aware of the influence of past and present art on their environment. The main objectives of Physical and sport education are the same throughout the three cycles of primary school and lower secondary school, with levels of learning that increase through the cycles:. Following increasing levels of difficulty, pupils gradually learn to produce their best performance, adapt their movements to varied environments, express themselves in front of others through artistic or acrobatic activities, lead and manage a match in a team or between two players.
Depending on their pupils, teachers freely choose the available materials and equipment and different physical and sports activities for the lessons athletics, swimming, dance, circus arts, gymnastics, team ball games, racket sports, etc.
« Le sport n’est pas dans une bulle »
They ensure that each pupil participates in a variety of individual and group activities during the cycle. During Cycle 3, pupils exercise and reinforce their motor skills in more challenging, diverse contexts. They learn to identify and analyse the immediate effects of their actions to perfect them and improve performance, which involves both oral and written work. In team sports and activities, they continue to learn various roles referee, observer, etc. Through significant practice time, pupils test and develop the working methods specific to the subject, via action, imitation, observation and cooperation.
As in Cycle 2, learning to swim remains a priority. In Cycle 3, this subject is allocated one hour every week. In the first year of lower secondary, it is delivered by voluntary teachers of various subjects. This is not theoretical education, but practical, concrete education that puts pupils in role play situations to get them to think, express themselves, act and react. Once pupils have acquired basic knowledge in Cycle 2 and an ability to situate themselves in time and space, they begin two separate subjects in Cycle 3, History and Geography, and so continue to construct their relationship to time and space.
These two subjects are closely linked, dealing with common topics and concepts and sharing tools and methods. The objective in Cycle 3 is not for pupils to gain an exhaustive knowledge of History, which is premature at this level, but rather to lay the foundations of the initial historical landmarks, which will be consolidated and extended in Cycle 4.
These landmarks help pupils to understand that today's world and contemporary society are the descendants of long processes, changes and choices made by men and women in the past. Pupils observe the concrete traces of history particularly in their nearby, everyday environment and question their meaning; they are gradually introduced to other types of sources and other evidence, relating to worlds farther away in time and space. They understand that the narrative of history is constantly nourished and altered by new archaeological and scientific discoveries, giving a new, different understanding of the past.
By examining historical events, pupils learn to distinguish history from fiction and understand that the past is a source of investigation. In particular, pupils have the opportunity to compare historical facts and beliefs: the study of religious events systematically roots these events in their cultural and geopolitical contexts. In CM1 and CM2, they discover key moments in the history of France in chronological order, from the traces of early occupation of the French territory up to the construction of the European Union.
Following this introduction, in the first year of lower secondary, pupils look more closely at questions and approaches specific to historical science, by studying prehistory and Antiquity. Topic 2: Foundation stories, beliefs and citizenship in the ancient Mediterranean in the first millennium BC. The geography curriculum in Cycle 3 is organised around the concept of "living": the ways that humans organise and use their living spaces, on all scales.
This concept enables pupils to identify and grasp the objective and methods of learning geography. Using very practical case studies work, consumption, leisure, etc. Firstly, pupils discover and explore every day, local living environments. They then examine other scales and other social and cultural environments; finally, in the last year of the cycle, they analyse the diversity of "living" environments across the world. The topics on the curriculum encourage reflection on the challenges and necessity of sustainable development in territories.
During Cycle 2, pupils "explored" the natural world by observing, questioning and carrying out basic experiments. In Cycle 3, in "Science and Technology", they begin to make an initial rational, coherent representation of this world, by tackling genuine scientific concepts. They also acquire skills and knowledge linked to the world of technology.
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The "Science and Technology" subject in Cycle 3 will later be sub-divided into three separate subjects Cycle 4 at lower secondary school : Physics-Chemistry, Life and Earth Sciences, and Technology. In Cycle 3, pupils are introduced to scientific approaches with support and help from the teacher, in a practical manner: by formulating questions, exploring research areas, then offering explanatory hypotheses, testing them through experiments, observations or simulations, and communicating their results and conclusions.
They develop their curiosity, manual skills, precision in using language and rigorous reasoning, and gradually learn to differentiate scientifically validated facts from opinions. In terms of technology, pupils explore the technical world, in particular through the history of the development of objects, designing and producing models or prototypes. They improve their skills in using digital tools. Pupils learn to distinguish between living and inert matter, and different materials metals, glass, plastic, etc. They observe and describe different types of movements, examine the concept of speed, using examples that mean something to them riding a bike, travelling by train, movements of the planets.
Finally, they discover different energy sources and how these are converted to make them usable by humans. Pupils learn how to classify living species and discover the relationships between them. By observing changes in species on Earth over time, they examine the concept of the evolution of the species. The role of nutrition in living beings, their development and reproduction are also studied in this topic.
Pupils identify that objects respond to needs and that our changing needs lead to the development of new objects. Using everyday examples, they study how technical objects work and how they are made. Finally, they create a technical project, from design to manufacture. In this topic, pupils learn to situate the Earth in the solar system and identify the conditions under which life appears and develops on our planet. Observing different habitats shows pupils that living beings are distributed across the Earth according to the conditions of their environment.
In our use of natural resources living species and geological resources , human beings modify these habitats. The study of natural phenomena, both geological volcanoes, earthquakes, etc. During Cycle 3, pupils will reinforce the techniques they have previously studied such as mental calculation and written calculation techniques, until they become automatic addition, subtraction and multiplication and they will also learn new ones division. They discover new mathematical concepts: decimal numbers, proportionality, new measurements area, volume, angles, etc.
In geometry, they manipulate concrete objects and discover new ways to represent space templates, perspectives, front, side and top views, etc. For working on numbers, and in geometry, digital tools - in particular, software - are used in addition to "paper and pencil" activities.
Finally, in Cycle 3, pupils begin a new form of mathematical exercise: problem solving. They discover that the mathematical skills and concepts they have learned are tools that will help them to solve mathematical problems. Examples of problems are taken from other subjects and from everyday life, and pupils are encouraged to find problems themselves. Pupils continue to study whole numbers and large numbers up to 12 figures orally and in writing, becoming ever more proficient in the number system and knowing how to use it when calculating.
They tackle decimal numbers decimal point , learn to write a number as a fraction and solve basic problems that use fractions and decimals. They practise mental calculation, especially when estimating the magnitude of the result. They perform written calculations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. They use a calculator, especially to check their calculations. Pupils revise the measurements already studied length, mass, content, price, etc. They measure, compare and estimate measurements: the perimeter of a square or rectangle; the area of simple geometrical shapes rectangle, triangle, disc , the volume of a cube, measurement of angles, periods of time, etc.
They learn to use the common, official units for measurements. Pupils learn spatial recognition and use representations maps, plans, etc. In geometry, they construct three-dimensional solids, manipulate them and learn how to represent them templates, 3D software. They construct geometrical shapes using their instruments graduated ruler, compass, set square and give them properties equality of length, perpendicularity, parallelism, symmetry in relation to an axis, etc.
They are introduced to coding through location finding activities for example programming the movements of a robot or geometrical activities constructing simple shapes on a computer. The latest news about french education policy , such as.
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The Consolidation Cycle cycle 3. French Cycle 2 focused on the acquisition of reading and writing skills; in Cycle 3, the teaching of French helps to reinforce this knowledge, which is essential for all other subjects. The main points covered are: comprehension and oral expression Pupils learn to use oral language to give explanations, information or opinions in a clear, ordered way, interacting effectively and clearly with their classmates to compare reactions or points of view, refining their thoughts by identifying ideas or formulations to prepare a written piece or speech.
Writing Pupils continue to learn cursive handwriting so that their gestures are automatic and they can write effectively and quickly. Reading The goal in Cycle 3 is to develop independent readers, both at school and at home, who can read out loud or in silence, fluently and quickly. Understanding of language grammar, spelling, vocabulary In Cycle 3, the objective is to ensure solid grammatical knowledge of central concepts, highlight the main regularities of the French language in order to master its spelling, and begin studying the system of the language.
Literary and artistic culture From the main topics on the curriculum, teachers freely choose literary and artistic works to be studied and encourage personal reading; pupils therefore acquire basic knowledge of a common literary and artistic culture. Modern languages foreign or regional Teaching of the modern language chosen in the preparatory class has two main, closely linked objectives: to learn to communicate in another language understand and express yourself orally and in writing, and have conversations with others and to discover another culture.
Art During Cycle 3, the teaching of art gradually leads pupils towards more independent artistic practice, which they also learn to analyse in greater depth. There are three main topics on the curriculum, studied in each year of the cycle: artistic representation and presentation methods; artistic production and the relationship between the object and the space; the material nature of art production and awareness of the elements included in the work. Music The teaching of music combines expressive and creative activities, usually in a group, with listening to and analysing a variety of musical works.
History of art Pupils begin learning this new subject in the first year of Cycle 3 at the same time as history.
Physical and sport education The main objectives of Physical and sport education are the same throughout the three cycles of primary school and lower secondary school, with levels of learning that increase through the cycles: developing motor skills and learning to express yourself using your body; becoming familiar with working tools and methods by practising sport; sharing rules and taking on roles and responsibilities within a team; learning how to look after your health through regular physical activity; becoming familiar with a physical and artistic sport culture.
Civic and moral education Civic and moral education has four main objectives during the three cycles of primary and lower secondary school: emotional awareness education, to learn to identify feelings and emotions, put them into words, discuss them and understand other people's feelings and emotions; education in rules and law, to understand the meaning of rules in the classroom, primary or secondary school and to make pupils future citizens aware of the role and importance of law in the French Republic; education in moral judgement, in order to understand and discuss the moral choices encountered in life, requiring pupils to put forward arguments, debate and justify their choices; experiencing engagement, encouraging pupils to participate in the social life of their class and school, acquire a spirit of cooperation and a sense of responsibility towards others.
On the curriculum in Cycle 3: Emotional awareness: expressing and sharing your emotions and feelings with others about literary or artistic works or during group discussions on classroom life; respect for and acceptance of others and their differences in language and attitude; understanding the meaning of the symbols of the French Republic. For example, pupils may take part in role plays, drama games, mimes, or take part in philosophical discussions supervised and led by the teacher on the topics of tolerance and mockery.
Rules and law: understanding, accepting and applying the concepts of rights and duties, applying the principle of equality between girls and boys, understanding the principles and values of the French Republic and the European Union, understanding the founding characteristics of the French Republic institutions, the basis of law, the concept of citizenship, etc. For example, pupils may define and discuss the rules of debate, analyse gender stereotypes using examples from manuals, literature or films, or study the founding texts of institutions and their history. Moral judgement: learning to debate speaking in front of others, listening to others, formulating and justifying a point of view , exercising critical judgement about information received from the media, differentiating between personal interest and collective interest.
For example, pupils may exercise their critical judgement on events relating to life in the class, school or outside school to combat prejudices racism, sexism, homophobia, etc. Experience of engagement: learning to explain and justify choices, integration and personal involvement in a group, understanding the values of fraternity and solidarity, etc. Pupils may, for example, play an active role in a group project within the class, school or town, connected to an association.
History and geography Once pupils have acquired basic knowledge in Cycle 2 and an ability to situate themselves in time and space, they begin two separate subjects in Cycle 3, History and Geography, and so continue to construct their relationship to time and space. History The objective in Cycle 3 is not for pupils to gain an exhaustive knowledge of History, which is premature at this level, but rather to lay the foundations of the initial historical landmarks, which will be consolidated and extended in Cycle 4.
Curriculum: CM1 year before last of primary school, age 9 : Topic 1: Before France What are the earliest traces of human occupation in French territory? Celts, Gauls, Greeks and Romans: what is the heritage from ancient cultures? The main population movements 4th to 10th century. Henri IV and the Edict of Nantes.
Primary school at the time of Jules Ferry.
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