My special thanks go to the project leader Prof. Johannes Koder for his cooper- ation and his unwavering support in many matters. Basilicorum Libri LX, ed. Corpus Iuris Civilis, Codex Justinianus, vol. Zepos, vol. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Trapp [et al. Liddell — R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. With a Revised Supplement. Martindale, ed. Propylaeum ad Acta sanctorum No- vembris, hrsg. Papaconstantinou — A. Washington, D. Thomas — A. Hero, Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents. See also act no. Paris , 68, Menoikeion  Menoikeion, ch.
Delehaye, in: T. Wiegand, Der Latmos. Berlin , ; 7 Latros Typikon, ch. Theodore of Edessa became a monk at Mar Saba precisely at age 20; see his vita, ch. VIII ed. Petersburg , 7. Thus in the 14th c. He then went to Crete where his beard began to grow, and returned to Athos where he was tonsured at age John, however, advised him to contin- ue his studies, since his chin was still bare, and to come to Athos once fuzz appeared on his cheeks. Anthony instructed him never to kiss any monk who came to visit, whether an acquaintance or stranger.
Cambridge, Massachusetts , 9 — 11, ch. AnBoll 70  60 — Note, however, that Sabas the Younger went to Athos at age 18; cf. Thessalonike , ch. AnBoll 58  This passage is borrowed from a much earlier abbot, Paul Helladikos, at the Elusa monastery in Idumaea Palestine. In the 13th c. AnBoll 62 Brussels , C2, BMFD 4: A3, BMFD 4: He also prescribed a seven-year novitiate and tonsure at age Before moving on to the experiences of teenagers within the cloister, I should like to present evidence from hagiography on the question of how long adolescence lasted in Byzantium.
For Byzantines the defining characteristic of male puberty was the growth of facial hair; in fact no other bodily alteration, such as deepening of the voice, is ever mentioned. There is very limited textual evidence for the age of beard growth, but the few passages that discuss this issue seem to indicate that it occurred later in the middle ages than in the contemporary world. Konidares — K. EEBS 45 — 82 Orpheus n. Connor —W. Connor, The Life and Miracles of St.
Luke [of Steiris]. Brookline, Massachu- setts , — , ch. A2— 3, BMFD 4: — BF 9 and n. Feofana Ispovednika. Petersburg , 6. Dvornik, La vie de s. Paris , 47, 11— 48, 1. Luke, ch. The Connors postulate the age of 21 based on the chronology provided in ch. Papadopoulos —Kerameus, Monumenta graeca et latina ad historiam Photii patriarchae pertinentia, 2.
Petersburg , 3, 11— In any case, I will include in my discussion information on Byzantine youths beyond their teenage years, into their early twenties. Desire for a monastic vocation during adolescence Longing for a monastic vocation was kindled in the hearts of many youths as young teenagers, but often they had to spend several more years at home or in school before gaining permission to enter a monastery.
Such was the case of the future St. Athana- sios of Athos, who came to Constantinople as an orphan to live with some distant relatives and pursue his education. Although he was living in an upper class house- hold, he imposed upon himself a frugal, ascetic regimen. He refused to eat the white bread and fish that the servants prepared for him, but insisted on eating barley bread, and raw fruits and vegetables, and drank water instead of wine. He kept noc- turnal vigils, splashing his face with ice-cold water in the effort to stay awake, and if he did succumb to drowsiness, he would sleep in a chair instead of a bed.
Moreover he kept giving away his clothes to the needy. But when he turned fourteen, he decided to reject the secular world and enter monastic life. When he sought admission to the Stoudios monastery, however, Symeon Eulabes, his spiritual father, told him he was too young and to come back when he was more mature. Halkin, Deux vies de s. AnBoll 54  69, 5. Leiden , 52— Weil, Where have all the sopranos gone?
Noret, Vitae duae antiquae sancti Athanasii Athonitae. Turnhout , — On a visit home, he discovered a copy of the Spiritual Ladder of John Kli- max in the family library, and read it assiduously along with holy scripture. He would shut himself up in the family chapel for hours in order to pray, sometimes holding his arms aloft for long periods of time. He also engaged in fasting and vigils, and visited tombs to meditate upon death. At one point he was granted an ecstatic out-of-body visionary experience. After six years of this self-imposed regimen, Sy- meon Eulabes finally permitted the youth to become a novice at Stoudios.
Even the most enthusiastic teenager might be challenged by the discipline of a cenobitic monastery during the trial period. The novitiate was intentionally a tough period of probation, designed to separate youths with a true vocation from those of weaker character, to train flighty and unfocussed teenagers in routine, patience, and humility, and espe- cially in obedience to their elders and the abbot.
Not all postulants were accepted for tonsure, although it is impossible to determine what proportion of novices was suc- cessful. The correction is supplied by Irenaeus. Bunsen, very naturally, exclaims. Irenaeus has epi duo ousai , i. Hippolytus likewise omits the word "produced," which Irenaeus supplies. The text of the latter is taj eikosetessaraj apekuhsan morfaj.
Marcus observes the distinction afterwards. The ms.. Irenaeus omits these words. This word, as applied to numbers, might refer to "the astrological phenomena" deducible by means of numierical calculations. From the twelfth number, by once abstracting the remarkable number , which does not come into the order and number of the letters, eleven letters remain. Hence in the dodecade, the paqoj , or what elsewhere the heretics call the "Hysterema," is a defect of one letter.
And this is a symbol of the defect or suffering which, upon the withdrawal of one Aeon, happended unto the last dodecade of Aeons. To this custom the poet Juvenal alludes, when he says of Nestor: -Atque suos jam dextera computat annos. That is, that he was one hundred years old. And as for each of the hours, where days and nights are equal, 15 degrees are allowed, it follows that in two hours, that is, in the twelfth part of a day, the sun completes a progress of 30 degrees. Peter claims to be co-presbyter with the elders whom he exhorts.
The Johannean school of primitive theologians seem to love this expression pre-eminently. It was almost as little specific in the primitive age as that of pastor or minister in our own. It has probably, as Cruice conjectures, crept into the ms.. Duncker suggests omoiwj. The parsage might also be construed, "supposed there to exist an essence that formed the basis of the universe. Cruice suggests xoroj band instead of oroj.
Of its force see Professor Caird, Encyc. We have no work of Aristotle's expressly treating "of God. A fabulous reference may convey a truth. This implies that Matthias was supposed to have preached and left results of his teachings. The ms. Miller do; "an obvious mistake". The above translation follows Schneidewin's version, which yields a tolerably clear meaning.
Ulhorn fills up the ellipsis thus: "And in reference to these localities of the Arghons," etc. See Beausobre, Hist. Roeper suggests "Ogdoad. Eusebius styles this heretic Saturninus. Empedociean verses. Schneidewin has furnished an emended copy of them Philol. See Stein's edition of the Empedoclean Verses , line et seq.
Bunsen [ more suo , vol. The Abbe Cruice denies the necessity for any such emendation, and refers us to an article in the Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology Cambridge, March, , the writer of which maintains, on the authority of St. Jerome, that St. Mark bad amputated his thumb, in order that he might be considered disqualified for the priesthood.
The only writer who mentions him is Theodoret Haer. They are found at 1ines in Stein's edition of the Empedoclean Verses. The entire of this article is taken from Irenaes, and equally coincides with the account given of Carpocrates by Epiphanius. Jerome, Ep. We have here, as in the preceding articles, Irenaeus in the Greek, as Hippolytus' text corresponds with the Latin version of this portion of Irenaeus' work.
Hippolytus is indebted in this article partly to Irenaes, and partly to original sources. Ecclesiast , v. Clemens Alexandrinus seems to have been greatly indebted to Theodotus, whose system he has explained and commented upon. Bunsen, i. This is the emendation proposed by tbe Abbe Cruice. The textual reading is antiparaqeseij comparisons. Miller's text reads Fanerwj , the error of which is obvious from Tertullian's Praescript. Cruice considers tne word to signify the title of a work written by Apelles. Hippolytus derives his article on Tatian, and in a measure that on the Encratites, from Irenaeus.
The rest is probably from original sources. Duncker alters it into apeiron infinite , and joins tapein with the word following. He renders the passage thus: "but infin in power-a lowly magnitude. The read. Miller's text reads it after en mesothti. The passage would then be rendered thus: "that is, Him who through the intervention of Mary has been born into the world the Saviour of all.
They have been added from apocryphal sources to the Greek version ii. The passage stands thus: kai egw planhtij kai latrij topon ek topou perierxomenh kai oikian ec oikiaj. The Abbe Cruice refers to St. Chrysostom's Hom. See book vii. The only writer that mentions him is Theodoret, Haer. Miller therefore alters abasileutwj into aboulhtwj. See Dr. Chalmers' Astronomical Discources. But see his works, vol. This would seem irrefragable proof of the authorship of the Refutation of all Heresies.
How happily Keble, in his Christian Year , gives it in sacred verse: "We need not bid, for cloister'd cell, Our neighbour and our work farewell, Nor strive to wind ourselves too high For sinful man beneath the sky:" "The trivial round, the common task, Would furnish all we ought to ask; Room to deny ourselves; a road To bring us daily nearer God.
The former denomination is derived from the Greek, and the latter from the Hebrew, and both signify worshippers of the serpent. These terrible confusions were thus foretold. Note the remarkable feeling, the impassioned tone, of the Apostle's warning in Acts xx. Theodoret mentions Epigonus and Cleomenes, and his account is obviously adopted by Hippolytus. Lewis in Plato against the Atheists , p. See cap.
See Eclog. Wordsworth for dikaion suggests eikaion , i e. The Heraclitean philosophy is explained by Stobaeus, already mentioned. Miller suggests palintonoj , the word used by Plutarch' De Isid.
Xyland in recounting Heraclitus' opinion. Palintonoj , referring to the shape of the bow, means "reflex" or "unstrung," or it may signify "clanging," that is, as a consequence of its being well bent back to wing a shaft. Aurel, Tbe proper reading however, is probably gnafwu , i.
Wordsworth's text has grafewn and en tw grafeiw , and he translate. The rendering in the text is adopted by Bernays and Bunsen. Wordsworth reads o nomizetai , and translates the passage thus: "But they undergo changes, as perfumes do, when whatever is thought agreeable to any individual is mingled with them. See Theodorit, Haer. Wordsworth suggests kat idian , i. Nay, his condemnation before Fuscianus enabled Callistus to succeed entirely in his plans for worldly advancement.
This heretic figures as a saint , and has his festival on the 14th of October. Maxima veneratione colitur , says the Roman Breviary. Hippolytus himself, along with the Roman bishop Pontianus, was banished thither. See introductory Notice. Wordsworth supposes that Hippolytus speaks ironically in the case of Marcia, as well as of Hyacinthus and Carpophorus. Poor Marcia, afterwards poisoned by the wretch who de degradeded, was a heathen who under a little light was awakening to some sense of duty, like the woman of Samaria, John iv.
Sebastian still bear the name of this unhappy man, and give incidental corroboration to the incident. Callistus had doubtless sent letters to announce his consecration to other bishops, as was customary, and had received answers demanding proofs of his orthodoxy. See my note on the intercommunion of primitive bishops, vol. Also Cyprian, this vol. Scott reads euqeoj mhden , Dr. Wordsworth translates the words thus: "having no rectitude of mind. And on marriage of the clergy, vol. The rendering followed above does probably less violence to the text than others proposed.
The variety of meaning generally turns on the word enazia in Miller's text. Bunsen alters it into en azia Wordsworth reads hlikiwth Roeper reads hlikia Wordsworth places peridesmeisqai in the first sentence, and translates thus: "women began to venture to bandage themselves with ligaments to produce abortion, and to deal with drugs in order to destroy what it was conceived. Wordsworth reads platunqhnai , i. The Abbe Cruice thinks that the author followed by Hippolytus was not Josephus, but a Christian writer ref the first century, who derived his materials from the Jewish historian.
Hippolytus' text sometimes varies from the text of Josephus, as well as of Porphyry, who has taken excerpts from Josephus work. This seems the sense required. The very dogs scratch earth upon their ordure; and this ordinance of decency is in exquisite consistency with the modesty of nature , against which Christians should never offend.
Some have supposed that Plato became acquainted with:he Pentateuch through the medium of an ancient Greek version extant prior to that of the Septuagint. See on the "Little Labyrinth," Bunsen, i. The punctuation followed above is conjectural, but gives substantially the meaning of the text as settled by Duncker. The former yields no meaning, and the latter conveys an erroneous conception regarding the Blessed Lord, who, in yielding to suffering and death, showed Himself more than con-! The object of introducing these genealogical and ethnic remaks might at first seem irrelevant; but they are intended to be subservient to Hippolytus' Demostration of the Truth , by proving the superior antiquity, as coming down from Abraham, of revelation above all pagan philosophy.
A chronographer, however, contemporary with Hippolytus-Julius Africanus-discarded this number, as is proved by the fragments of his work preserved by Eusebius and Syncellus. But the fragment in our text corresponds with a Latin translation of a Chronicon given by Fabricius, and bearing the name of Hippolytus. The terms in which Hippolytus delivers himself above imply that he was the inventor of a chronological system, thus harmonizing with the fact that the Paschal Cycle, though ever so faulty, was selected out of all his writings for being inscribed on Hippolytus' statue, dug up on the road to Tivoli.
Yet the universality of such traditions is unaccountable save as derived from the history of Noah. We may doubt as to their genuineness, of course. But even supposing Origen not the author, the copyer of the ms.
The fact, however, i. See translator's Introductory Notice. See also War;Isworth a lucid exposition , p. What follows corresponds with a fragment having a similar title to that stated above, first published by Le Moyne, and inserted in Fabricius i. Photics mentions this work, and give an extract from it corresponding with what is furnished by Hippolytus.
Photius, however, mentions that the book On the Substance of the Universe was said to be written by Josephus, but discovers in marginal notes the asription of it to Caius. But Caius cannot be the writer, since Photius states that the author of The Labyrinth affirmed that he had written 0n the Substance of the Universe. Now Hippolytus informs us that he is author of The Labyrinth. Hippolytus thus refers to three of his works in The Refutation : I eterai bibloi , i. Except Hippolytus and Photics refer to different works in speaking of The Labyrinth , the foregoing settles the question of the authorship of The Refutation.
Wordsworth, cap. The latter also alters the reading of the vs. Wordsworth suggests for genesei, epigenesei , i. A certain parallel in this and other portions of Hippolytus' concluding remarks, induces the transcriber, no doubt, to write "Origen's opinion" in the margin. Hippolytus here follows his master Irenaeus Haer. This great philosopher and divine, however, shook the entire fabric of existing theology respecting the will, and started diffculties, speculative ones at least, which admit of no solution short of the annihilation of finite thought and volition.
See translator's Treatise on Metaphysics , chap. Tertullian and Origen. See Indexes on Free-will. Wordsworth translates the passage thus: "Endued with free will, but not dominant; having reason, but not able to govern," etc. This constitutes another reason for the marginal note "Origen's opinion," already mentioned. The heathen seers did not give forth their vaticinations spontaneously, but furnished responses to those only who made inquiries after them, says Dr. The translator has followed Cruice's rendering, refinxisse while Dr.
Wordsworth construes the word "fashioned. Bunsen does not alter peforhkota , the reading of the its, and translates it, "to have put on the old man through a new formation. See Hippolytus, De Antichristo , sec.
Wordsworth translates the passage thus: "acknowledging thyself a man of like nature with Christ, and thou also waiting for the appearance of what thou gavest Him. Wordsworth, is here anxious to indicate, is the glorification of human nature in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Wordsworth therefore objects to Bunsen's rendermg, as it gives to the passage a meaning different from this. Thus, with confusing brackets, the Edinburgh reads: "who so often lead your armies to victory.
Wordsworth justifies Hippolytus' use of the pagan word "Tartarus," by citing the passage 2 Pet. Fabricii; p. Thus, Christ overrules the Tempter Gen. Wordsworth controverts in favour of the one adopted above. Wordsworth severely censures this rendering in a lengthened note. Wordsworth renders the word thus: "God has a longing for thee. His brief statement chap. A sufficient answer to Dr. Bunsen, vol. That Hippolytus wrote on the Hexaemeron is noticed by Eusebius, Hist. They are found also in a Catena on Matthew, issued at Leipsic in But compare Acts iv.
Hippolytus uses here the exact phrase of the Nicene Council. So, too, in his Contra Noetum , chap. Sevenal manuscripts and versions and Fathers read; esxatoj with Hippolytus instead of prwtoj. Jerome in loc. It is to tis effect; Plainly and evidently the generation of the Only-begotten, which is at once from God the Father, and through the holy Virgin, is signified, even as He is belived and manifested to be a man.
For being by nature and in truth the Son ofgod the Father, on our account He submitted to birth by woman and the womb, and sucked the breast. Against Nestorius and Eutyches from Galland. The same fragment is found in Mai, Script. From the Vatican ms.. As I read it, the Lord interfered , surprising the woman and horrifying her. The soul of the prophet came back from Sheol, and prophesied by the power of God. Our author misunderstands the Hebrew plural.
Compare Acts iii. See on Ps. So, too, others, as may be seen in Poli Synops. The Hebrew word, rendered "straightway" in our version, is translated pfwqeij in the Septuagint, i. The "Kophim" of 1 Kings x. The kepfoj , however, is said to be a sea-bird "driven about by every wind," so that it is equal to a fool. So used by Aristophanes. A mere mediaeval blunder. The word"Bishop," which avoids the ambiguity above noted, I have therefore put into parenthesis. The reference must be to ch.
Rufinus mentions that Hippolytus wrote on a certain part of the prophet Ezekiel, viz. Note the confusion between Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin in what follows. Pusey's work an Daniel, as invaluable in this connection. The comments of our author on this book and on "the Antichrist," infra , deserve special attention, as from a disciple of the disciples of St.
John himself. A very pregnant testimony to our own times. Irenaeus, however, held the same opinion book v. The same view is expressed yet earlier in the Epistle of Barnabas sec. It was an opinion adopted from the rabbis. As to the duration of the Greek empire, Hippolytus and Africanus make it both years, if we follow Jerome's version of the latter in his comment on Dan.
Eusebius makes it seventy years longer in his Demonstr. Our Authorized Version is better, and the rendering might be "a man of loves. For Lathyrus was sometimes called Philometor in ridicule epi xleuasma , as Pausanias says in the Attica. He pretended to be the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, and even gained a decree of the senate of Rome in his favour as such.
Yet he was a person of unknown origin, as indeed he acknowledged himself in his choice of the designation Theopator. Livy calls him "a man unknown, and of uncertain parentage" homo ignotus et incertae stirpis. So Hippolytus calls him here, "a certain Alexander" tina. He had also other surnames, e. From Gallandi. This fragment seems to have belonged to the beginning or introduction to the commentary of Hippolytus on Daniel. Corderianae, pp. But there is no evidence that it ever formed part of the Hebrew, or of the original Syriac text.
It is generally placed at the beginning of the book, as in the Greek mss.. That these are spurious is now generally agreed.
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The translation is from the Latin version, which alone is given by Afigne. Hippolytus dictates these words. In the manuscripts the abbreviation anwn is often found for anqrwpwn. Others would read wj puron , etc. The text is in confusion here. Combefisius corrects it, as we render it, ooganwn dikhn hnwmenon exontej en eautoij. The text is auto palin o tou qeou pai.
See Macarius, Dininitas D. Thomassin, De Incarnatione Verbi , iii. See his Pindaric ode, The Bard. As this would seem to represent the Holy Ghost as the Father of Christ, Combefisius proposes, as in our rendering, kata thn dia tou agiou , etc. The wine , therefore, is taken as a figure of His deity , and the garment as a figure of His humanity ; and the sense would be, that He has the latter imbued with the former in a way peculiar to Himself-even as the voice at the Jordan declared Him to be the Father's Son, not His Son by adoption, but His own Son, anointed as man with divinity itself.
Dan's name is excepted in Rev. The learned Calmet sub voce Dan makes a prudent reflection on this idea. The history given in Judg. That Alexander himself divided his kingdom is asserted by Josephus Gorionides iii. Who could have foreseen the universal spirit of democracy in this century save by the light of this prophecy? See Leo Allatius, De libris Eccles. Graecorum , p. The words of the angel in Luke i. This offering of incense was a test very commonly proposed by the pagans to those whose religion they suspected.
Hippolytus here follows his master Irenaeus, who in his Contra Haeres. The mystery, however, does seem to turn upon something in the Latin race and its destiny. Hippolytus follows the Hebrew, but makes the pronoun feminine, auth referring to the peace. See his Commentary on Acts xxvii. May it refer to the karxhsia? The Hebrew has 1, as the number in the second verse. Epiphanius and others suppose that the words thus cited by Paul are taken from the apocryphal writings of Jeremiah: others that they are a free version of Isa.
Is not this treatise a vioce to our own times of vast significance? The Jews valued this book, but did not account it to be Scripture; yet this quotation is a very remarkable comment on what ancient Jews understood concerning the Just One. Acts iii. See Colomesii Keimhlia litteraria , 28, and Suicer on adhj. Hence Abraham's bosom and paradise were placed in Hades. See Olympiodorus on Eccles. But compare vol.
In the same we find wj mhte for kai touj dikaiouj. Hippolytus is here speaking of the ultimate doom of the wicked, but bears in mind the imagery of Luke xvi. But Philastrius, Heresy , 53, puts Elijah for Aaron: hic etiam dicebat se Moyscm esse, et fratrem suum Eliam prophetam. It reflects canonical Scripture, but has no canonical value otherwise.
The word monokwla appears to be used advervially, instead oft monokwlwj and monotupwj , which are the terms employed by Epiphanius p. Besides others, the presbyter Timotheus, in Colelerii Monument , vol. For thus was the Word made flesh. So also in the Constitutiones Apostol. Justin Martyr, Dialog. From these words it is apparent also that this treatise was the closing portion of a book against the heresies Fabricius. Note our teeming indexes of Scripture texts.
This phrase, adopted by the Nicene Fathers, occurs before their time not only here, but also in Justin Martyr, Tatian, and Athenagoras, as is noticed by Grabe, ad Irenaeum , lib. Methodius also, in his Homily on Simwon and Anna , p. Athanasius himself also uses the phrase luxnon ek luxnou , vol. Hippolytus evidently puts the full stop at the oude en , attaching the o gegonen to the following. So also Irenaeus, Clemens Alex. This punctuation was also adopted by the heretics Vilcntinus, Heracleon, Theodotus, and the Macedonians and Eunomians; and hence it is rejected by Epiphanius, ii.
Victor reads en th upostasei , in the substance, nature: Syrnmachus has en th omilia , in the fellowship. Many of the patristic theologians called the Son the Father's boulhsij or qelhma. See the passages in Petavius, De S. Trinitate , lib. A little before, in the eighth chapter, he said that there is one God, according to substance or divine essence, which one substance is in three Persons; and that, according to disposition or economy, there are three Persons minifested. By the term economy , therefore, he understands, with Tertullian, adversus Praxcam.
Here he also calls the grace of the Holy Spirit the third economy , but in the same way as Tertullian, who calls the Holy Spirit the third grade tertium grandum. For the terms gradus, forma, species, dispositio , and aeconimia mean the same in Tertuliian. Another proof that the Nicene Creed was a collection of AnteNicene theologians. See Petavius, De Trin. The words in Italics are given only in the Latin. They may have dropped from the Greek text.
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At any rate, some such addition seems necessary for the sense. Clark , div. The patristic citations are sufficient, and Hippolytus may be harmonized with them. The sense is, it had its subsistence in the Logos; He was the connective and vehicular force. This is thoroughly unobjectionable. He does not thus necessarily pronounce the humanity of Christ impersonal; although in view of what has preceded, and what remains to be adduced, there can be no doubt [?
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Note also what he says of the latter, and his variations of expression, p. The divine in Christ is thus designated in the AnteNicene Fathers generally. See Grotius on Mark ii. See Shedd, Hist. The loving spirit of Auberlen, on the defeat of rationalism, may he noted with profit in his Dz'vsae Revelations , translation, Clark's ed. Ignatius, vol. The notes are also valuable. Compare vol. The Latin title in the version of Anastasius renders it "ex sermone qui est per elementum.
Fabricius conjectures that we should read hlikiwtw airetikwn , so that the title would be, Against Beron and his fellow-heretics. Anastasius makes it naturalibus producta legibus ; Capperonnier, suis quaeque legibus temperata vel ordinata. Thus in effect Combefisius, correcting the Latin version of Anastasius. Baunius adopts the reading in the Greek Codex Nicephori, viz. Anastasius makes it substantia. Migne follows Capperonnier in taking sugkrisij in this passage to mean not "comparison" or "relation," but "commixture," the "concretion and commixture" of the divine and human, which was the error of Apollinaris and Eutyches in their doctrine of the incarnation, and which had been already refuted by Tertullian, Contra Prexeam , c.
Anastasius reads mh for men. To feresqai we supply again pefuke. The text runs thus: omofuwn gar monwn h tautourgoj esti kinhsij shmainousa thn ousian, hj fudikh kaqesthke dunamij, eterofuouj idiothtoj ousiaj dinai kat oudena logon, h genesqai dxa trophj dunamenhn. Anasnsius renders it: Connaturalium enim tantum per se operans est notus, manifestans substantiam, cujus naturalem constat esse virtutern: diversae naturae proprietatis substantia nulla natura: esse vel fieri sine convertibilitate valente. But Capperonnier and Migne read oun for oux , as we have rendered it. So Gregory Thaumaturgus, Sancta Theophania , p.
Vossii: "Thou, when born of the Virgin Mary, See Dorner's Doctrine of the Person of Christ , div. Tertullian anticipates the languge of the "Athanasian Confession,"-"taking the manhood into God; " applicable, through Christ, to our redeemed humanity. Our author's perorations are habitually sublime. This treatise is mentioned in the list of his works given on the statue, and also by Jerome, Sophronius, Nicephorus, Honorius, etc. In Theodoret, Dial. John iii. See Bunsen, i. Some suppose it Ps. In the tractate of Eustratius, a presbyter of the Church of Constantinople, "Against those who allege that souls, as soon as they are released from the body, cease to act," ch.
Macaire, Theol. Cangii, p. In Theodoret's Dial. In the marble monument mention is made of a letter of Hippolytus to Severina. See his Hippolitus , i. Fabricius, Works of Hippolylus , vol, ii. Codex Baroccianus gives eurhkota. Elucidation, p. This is one of those terms which some allege not to have been yet in use in the time of Hippolytus. But, as Migne observes, if there were no other argument than this against the genuineness of this discourse, this would not avail much, as the term is certainly used by Origen, Metbodius, and Dionysius Alex.
Manuscript B reads hggisan. Migne suggests hgeiran. Codex B gives qeologoi. See too Bellarmine, De Pontifice Roni. The Apocalypse xi. The author of the Chronicon Paschale , p. And yet Ephriem of Antioch, in Photius, cod. See also Hippolytus, De Antichristo , ch. But see Heb. Note our author's adoption of the plan of a year for a day, Ezek. See Pusey, Daniel , p.
But Cod. B reads anafuen. B gives aeiparqenou , ever-virgin. Cod, B reads akribwj , exactly. Many of tbe ancients hold that AntiChrist will be a demon in human figure. B reads thn qeotokon egnwmen sarkikwj kai aplanwj , instead of the text, sarkoforon aplanwj , etc. But these letters of the word arnoumai in their numerical value will not give the number unless it is written arnoume. See Haymo on the Apocalypse, book iv. The faithful are to have the Holy Scriptures in their hand.
But this has been condemned by repeated bulls and anathemas of Roman pontiffs: e. See Hooker, Eccl. B reads pagidwn , snares.
Voss, These Theolog. B reads ekrazan. Does it refer to the somersaults of harlequins? Combefisius proposes Mardoij. Jerome has "Magis. This is found also, alon with the former piece, On the Twelve Apostles , in two codices of the Coislinian or Seguierian Library, as Montfaucon states in his recension of the Greek manuscripts of that library. He mentions also a third codex of Hippolytus, On the Twelve Apostles. Probably spurious, but yet antique.
It may be meant for, "these two of the seventy were scattered," etc. Mark's body is said to be in Venice. Michael Wanslebius in his book Ecclesia Alexandrina Paris, , p. He has also noted the passages in the Constitutions Apostolicae , treating the same: matters. See Bingham, book xv. The Missa was an innocent word for the dismission of those not about to receive the Communion. See Guettee, Exposition , etc. See the whole history of ecclesiastical antiquity, on this point, in the learned work of Wharton B.
Marriott, Vestiarium Christianum , London, Rivingtons, A very primitive token. See note 6, p, , supra. But see p, , supra. London, Longmans, Chyrstom evidently has in view the apostle's argument, based on the Communion as a Synaxis , and not on its hierurgic aspects. London: Parker, I have little doubt that our author's theory was guided by his conceptions of this passage, and by Ignatian traditions. See Guettee, p. See note, p. See p. Luke xx. Creature- merit is not implied, but, through grace, the desert of Matt.
But the Fathers seem to have thought it made good men more humble. It was used derisively by Tertullian, vol. See p , supra. But see Hermas, vol. The religion of Christ gave a new and loftier impulse to such tastes universally. Vol, ii. The enormous extent of this diabolical form of lust is implied in all these patristic rebukes. Horace, Sat. Cyprian speaks from heathen experience, then from the experience of a new birth.
Few specimens of simple eloquence surpass this. But compare even the best of Horatian epistles with this: "O noctes coenaeque Deum," etc. What a blessed contra. It seems most probable that the allusion is to Peter's denial of his Lord, and following Him afar off; and is intended to bear upon Cyprian's retirement. There seems no meaning in interpreting the passage a. But note, it asserts that the pasce oves meas was a reproach to St. Peter, and was understood to be so by his fellow-apostles. In other words, our Lord, so these clergy argue, bade St.
Peter not again to forsake the brethren whom he should strengthen. Luke xxii. See Greek of Philip. He is an example to his brethren: such the simple position of a primitive Bishop of Rome. Carthage, where the populace had already demanded Cyprian's blood. This was the canonical duty neglected by Callistus and his predecessor, who " imagined ," etc. See above, note I; also 1 Tim. See 1 Pet. Its genuineness is there fore doubted by some: "And although I have most fully written to our clergy, both lately when you were still kept in prison, and now also a sin, to supply whatever was needful, either for your clothing or for your food, yet I myself have also sent you from the small meanof my own which I had with me, pieces: and another,o I had also sent before.
Victor also, who from a reader has become a dea-, con, and is with me, sent you But I rejoice when I know that very many of our brethren of their love are striving with each other, and are aiding your necessities with their contributions. And mark the honest simplicity o these confessions.
Importunity necessary, even in the latter case. See Vulgate version of Ps. Stefano Rotondo at Rome a series of delineations of the sufferings of the early martyrs, poorly executed, and too horrible to contemplate; but it all answers to these words of our author. See Ep. But note the indomitable spirit with which, for successive ages, the Church supplied her martyrs. So in St. See Hippolytus, p. A technical expression, in the original.
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Rigaltius explains the passage. As to the time, see Treatise ii. See also Elucidation III. See concluding section of Ep. The Oxford translator has "empurpled. See Conybeare and Howson. It would appear that Candida therefore repented of her purpose of sacrificing, when she was actually on her way to effect it. Perhaps the most plausible is the emendation, "Petrario" "in the mines. The numbering of the epistles has hitherto been in accordance with Migne's edition of the text: but as he here follows a typographical error in numbering the epistle "xxiv. In each'case, therefore, after this.
See letter xxiv. Paul, Phil. The idea that this was peculiar to any one bishop had never entered his mind. The" Roman Catholic" theory was not known, even under the Papacy, till the Trent Council, which destroyed "sister churches. Also see vol. Paul, 1 Cor. Paris, See this vol. Elucidation VI. It is refferred to, p. Acts xv. Paul esteemed such stigmata a better ground of glorying in the flesh than his circumcision.
Ussher argues hereby the absence of all purgatorial ideas, because martyrs were allowed by all to go at once to bliss. Compare Tertull. Some read it as another name: "Soliassus and Budinarius" The Oxford editor changes it into Burdonarius, meaning a "carrier on mules. Butinarias would then mean a maker of vessels suitable for containing vinegar, etc. See Sophocles' Glossary of Byzantine Greek, s. Spanish, budin. Our author plays upon the word, and compares the corrupt presbyters to their like in the Hebrew Church, from which this name is borrowed. Cyprian considers the universal episcopate as one cathredra , like "Moses' seat" in the Church of the Hebrews.
This one chair he calls "Peter's chair. On which Compare Hooker, Polity , book viii. Here opens a new chapter in the history of Cyprian and of the Roman See. Consecration is the inferior term now usual in Western Christendom. Elucidation VIII. The e ection is that of a bishop like any other bishop.
The Orford text reads," When such writings came to me concerning you and your co-presbyters sitting with you, as had the true ring of religious simplicity m then'. They had taken letters only to "presbyters and deacons. See infra , Letter xlviii. One bishop, i e. See the note, Oxford translation of this letter, p. And this is the case in subsequent action of the Great Councils. Rome, though not the root, was yet a "root and matrix. See his Treatise on Unity ; also p Elucidation IX. See Oxford trans. A striking exposition. Elucidation X.
Mercy is magnified, indeed, but pardon and peace are made worth striving after. Repentance is made a reality, and we hear nothing of mechanical penances and absolutions. Note this; for, if he had imagined Cornelius to have been a "Pope," he must have said, "to unity with the true pontiff, against whom Novatian has rebelled, and made himself an anti-pope. But let us reflect what it meant to confess Christ in those days. See Dollinger On Unity , etc. But see Elucidation Xlll. See Southey, Roderick , xxv. The Fabulous Chronicle which Southey gives at length is a curious study of this subject.
See note, Oxford trans. See the Treatise on Unity. These notes will aid when we reach that Treatise. Capitol of Carthage, for the provinces imitated Rome in this respect. Du Cange give many instances. Let us not read into his expressions ideas which are an after-thought, and which conflict with the life and all the testimony of Cyprian. Elucidation XII. Cyprian's respect for the mother See was like that felt by Anglo-Americans for Canterbury, involving no subjection in the least degree.
See Elucidation Xlll. The words in parenthesis are not found in many editions. And for this ecclesiastical "remission," 2 Cor. Think of Canossa. Here the majesty and dignity of the Catholic Church is identified with all estates of men therein. The apostle calls the Judaizers a concision , the particle cut off and thrown away in the rite of circumcision; a rejected schism. See Joel iii. Our author has no conception of a pontifical system excluding the presbytery from its part and place in the councils and regimen of the Church.
Elucidation XIII. What excitement is afforded to the endurance of martyrdom by the brave and ready enduring of the contests of the stadium and the theatre. Finally, let the reward be considered, which now, moreover, animates and influences us to sustain everything. It seems to me exceptional. Freeman, vol. See letter li p , note 4, supra. Paul, Heb. I say St. Paul advisedly. See, to the contrary, Farrar, St. Paul , p. Carthage and Rome are of equal sacerdocy.
Compare Leto, Vat.