During the late Middle Ages and the renaissance, poets and writers in several Italian city states wrote in various dialects of Italian. The great wealth of Florence in Tuscany and of Venice led to the dialects of these two regions becoming dominant. The roots of modern Italian are in the 13th century in Sicily, where some people at the court of Frederick II enjoyed writing love poems for their women.
Then, those poems were translated into the language of Tuscany and they became an inspiration for other writers, who kept writing poems about several subjects, but the main theme was love. Love poetry remained very common in Italian literature for centuries and the love poems of the 13th century remained a model that most of the later Italian writers looked at; that is why Italians often call their own language the language of love. The language of Tuscany kept on having a leading role about literature over the other Italian languages. Until the s Italy had a history of being divided into many small city states or of being controlled by foreign powers.
The countries' many dialects continued to develop separately until very recently. To an extent, people thought of 'Italy' as a geographical term rather than as a country. When Garibaldi attempted to raise an army to fight for "l'Italia" in Sicily in the s on the behalf of King Vittorio Emmanuele II of Piedmont, many Sicilians believed that "l'Italia" was actually the name of the king's wife!
Italian was only spoken by a small minority, whilst most people were native speakers of the various regional languages also known as dialects of Italy which had developed separately from Italian. These are very distinct from Italian, and from each other, and often belong to separate language sub-families.
Piedmontese, spoken in the north-west of Italy, has many similarities with French; Sicilian, spoken in the south, shows signs of the region's long occupation by the Arabs, the Normans, and the Spanish, and is so different from Italian that when a film in Sicilian, "La Terra Trema" directed by Visconti, was released in the s, it was necessary to add subtitles so that audiences in the rest of Italy could understand it. The spread of free state education and the influence of radio and television in the twentieth century led to most Italians being able to understand the Italian language, which was based on Tuscan but admitted a number of words from other dialects.
As recently as the s, government surveys in Italy found that the majority of people speak standard Italian at school or at work, but still speak their own regional vernacular at home. Increasingly, Italians are moving around the country to find work and are marrying people from other regions. This and the ever-growing influence of the media have led to a decline in regional vernaculars, especially among young people.
Since the main models for Italian writers were poets, most of the best works in Italian literature are poems about several subjects. The three writers who are considered the fathers of the Italian language, often called the three crowns , lived during the late Middle Ages. ALL: getting up Macbeth is ill. His sickness is passing. All our guests are unhappy. Re-awaken enjoyment! Let the cheering toast be sung again, and let us not forget Banquo who is not with us. Give life to pleasure and death to sorrow.
Let us empty our glasses to illustrious Banquo! The flower of warriors, The pride of Scotland. Earth, open a ditch and swallow him. Those bones are burning, that steaming blood sprays in my face! That look is turned on me And pierces my heart! ALL: Oh misfortune! You may become a tiger, a threatening lion, you may snatch me, but you will not see Macbeth tremble. You will discover if I feel fear! But leave me! Leave me, awesome ghost! The ghost disappears I am coming back to life! I shall go to the witches and pierce the veil of the future. Your fright has created idle phantoms.
The crime is done. The dead cannot return. He has spoken terrified by phantoms. This land has become a den of thieves. ALL: Sinister mysteries! Act 3 Top Act 2 Act 4. Un'oscura caverna. Nel mezzo una caldaia che bolle. Tuoni e lampi. A dark cave. In the middle is a boiling cauldron.
Thunder and lightning. Tre volte miagola la gatta in fregola. Tre volte l'upupa lamenta ed ulula. Tre volte l'istrice guaisce al vento. Su via! Tu, rospo venefico Che suggi l'aconito, Tu, vepre, tu, radica Sbarbata al crepuscolo Va', cuoci e gorgoglia Nel vaso infernal.
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Tu, dito d'un pargolo Strozzato nel nascere. Tu, labbro d'un Tartaro, Tu, cuor d'un eretico, Va' dentro, e consolida La polta infernal. Voi che mescere Ben sapete, Rimescete! Three times the cat has mewed in heat. Three times the hoopoe has mourned and wailed. Three times the porcupine has yelped to the wind. ALL: This is the hour! Come, let us dance quickly round the cauldron and mix powerful brews in our circle. Sisters, to work! The water is steaming, crackling and bubbling. Poisonous toad, which sucks wolfsbane, thorn, root plucked at twilight, cook and bubble in the devil's pot.
Tongue of viper, hair of bat, blood of monkey, tooth of dog, boil and be swallowed up in the infernal brew III. Finger of child strangled at birth, lip of Tartar, heart of heretic, thicken the hellish broth. ALL: Boil! Sprits, black and white, red and blue blend together! You who well know how, blend together! Si avanza verso le Streghe Che fate voi, misteriose donne? Ch'io sappia il mio destin, se cielo e terra Dovessero innovar l'antica guerra. Da Macduff ti guarda prudente. Solo un motto Tuono: apparisce un fanciullo insanguinato Taci, e n'odi le occulte parole.
Esser puoi sanguinario, feroce: Nessun nato di donna ti nuoce. Tuoni e lampi: sorge un fanciullo coronato che porta un arboscello Ma che avvisa quel lampo, quel tuono? Un fanciullo col serto dei Re! Per magica possa Selva alcuna giammai non fu mossa. Otto Re passano l'uno dopo l'altro. Un terzo? O mio terror!
Ridendo a me li addita? Muori, fatal progenie! Trae la spada, s'avventa sugli spettri, poi s'arresta Ah, che non hai tu vita! Aerei spirti, Ridonate la mente al Re svenuto! He goes towards the witches. What are you doing, mysterious women? There is a flash of lightning and a head wearing a helmet appears from out of the ground.
Beware Macduff! Just one word The apparition vanishes. Here is another, more powerful. Lightning: a bloodstained child appears. Stay quiet and hear his mysterious words. You may be bloody and fierce: no man born of woman will harm you. It disappears. No, you will die. Your death will be a double shield on my royal breast! A child appears wearing a crown and carrying a sapling.
But what does this thunder and lightning mean? A child with a king's crown! No wood was ever moved by magic power. To the witches Now tell me: will the descendants of Banquo ever mount the throne? Or else my sword will fall on you! The cauldron sinks into the ground. The cauldron has disappeared! What is this music? What is it? ALL: Then like mist vanish again. Eight kings pass by, one after the other. You remind me of Banquo.
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Your crown is a bolt of lightning burning my eyes. A fourth?
A fifth? Oh, horror! The last one is carrying a mirror, and new kings are endorsed within the crystal. And Banquo, oh, awful sight, you laugh while you point them out to me? Die, you deadly offspring! He draws his sword and strikes out at the ghosts. He stops.
But you have no life! Oh, terror! He faints. Spirits of the air, bring the unconscious King back to his senses. Scendono gli spirti, e mentre danzano intorno a Macbeth, le Streghe cantano il seguente. Spirits descend, and while they dance around Macbeth the witches sing.
Tessete il vortice Carole armoniche, E sensi ed anima Gli confortate. Spirti e Streghe spariscono.
CHORUS: Nymphs and white-winged sylphs, blow upon that pallid brow, weave a whirl of sweet songs to comfort his body and soul. The witches and spirits disappear. Oh, sia ne secoli Maledetta quest'ora in sempiterno! Che fate? Morte e sterminio sull'iniqua razza! Di Macduffo arda la rocca! Perano moglie e prole! Ora di morte, ormai t'affretta! They have gone! Oh, may this hour be eternally damned!
What were you doing? Death and destruction to that wicked brood! His wife and children must perish! Come quickly, hour of death, Fate's remorseless decree; this business will end with crime since it was begun with blood. Act 4 Top Act 3. Luogo deserto ai confini della Scozia e dell'Inghilterra. In distanza la foresta di Birnam.
Profughi scozzesi, Uomini, Donne, Fanciulli. Macduff in disparte, addolorato. A deserted p1ace on the border between Scotland and England. In the distance is Birnam wood. Scottish refugees - men, women and children. Macduff stands sorrowfully apart from them. CORO: Patria oppressa! D'orfanelli e di piangenti Chi lo sposo e chi la prole Al venir del nuovo Sole S'alza un grido e fere il Ciel. A quel grido il Ciel risponde Quasi voglia impietosito Propagar per l'infinito, Patria oppressa, il tuo dolor.
Ah, fra gli artigli Di quel tigre io lasciai la madre e i figli?
List of renamed places in Italy
Ah, la paterna mano Non vi fu scudo, o cari, Dai perfidi sicari Che a morte vi ferir! E me fuggiasco, occulto, Voi chiamavate invano, Coll'ultimo singulto, Coll'ultimo respir. Trammi al tiranno in faccia, Signore! You cannot have the sweet name of mother now that you have become a tomb for your sons. From orphans, from those who mourne, some for husbands, some for children, at each new dawn a cry goes up to outrage heaven. To that cry heaven replies as if moved to pity, oppressed land, it would proclaim your grief for ever.
The bell tolls constantly for death but no-one is so bold as to shed a vain tear for the suffering and dying. Oppressed land of ours! My homeland, oh,my homeland! You have all been killed by that tyrant, together with your poor mother! Ah, did I leave a mother and her children in the clutches of that beast?
Alas, a father's hand was not there to shield you, my dear ones, from the treacherous assassins who put you to death. And in vain you called on me, a fugitive, in hiding, with your last gasp, with your last breath. Lord, bring me face to face with this tyrant, and if he escapes me let your merciful arms open to him. Al suono del tamburo entra Malcolm, conducendo molti soldati inglesi.
Drums sound and Malcolm enters, leading a large number of English soldiers. What wood is that? He has no children. Let us run to rescue the oppressed! The wrath of God will destroy the villain. God has grown tired of his awful crimes. Scena nel Castello di Macbeth come nell'Atto Primo. Medico e Dama di Lady Macbeth. A hall in Macbeth's castle.
A doctor and Lady Macbeth's gentlewoman. DAMA: Ridirlo non debbo a uom che viva. Here she is! DAMA: La lampada che sempre si tiene accanto al letto. DAMA: E pur non vede.
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